Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Photosynthesis, as it occurs?

Plants, algae and some microorganisms are phototrophs agencies because they capture light energy and used in the synthesis of carbohydrate such as glucose (formed from water and carbon dioxide). Photosynthesis is the process by which plants produce their food.

To perform photosynthesis plants need several items found in the environment.

Light energy: impacts on leaves and is absorbed by the photosensitive pigment of the plant, the chlorophyll.

Water: Photosynthesis requires a constant supply of water. It reaches the leaves through roots and stems.

Chlorophyll: Pigment green in the chloroplast. He is responsible for the absorption of light, to carry out photosynthesis.

Carbon dioxide: is absorbed by a few tiny pores called stomataon the lower part of the leaf.

Oxygen: byproduct of photosynthesis. Leaves leaves outward through the stomata.

Glucose, one of the foods they produce these agencies It is synthesized from carbon dioxide and water taken from the environment. Light energy triggers the entire process and oxygen is a waste that is released to the environment.

So the light energy can be used by plants, it must first be absorbed by them. Let's see how this happens.

On every floor we find plant pigments. Its function is absorb certain wavelengths of light, and - in his time - reflect others. The chlorophyll is one of the main pigments possessing plant. The chlorophyll absorbs light wavelengths corresponding to the violet colors, blue and red and reflects that correspond to the green. For this reason, many plants are green.

The plants have different types of chlorophyll. The chlorophyll to is the pigment that participates in the synthesis of food. Chlorophyll b and another group of pigments called carotenoids absorb wavelengths different from which absorbs the chlorophyll. These two pigments transferred power to the chlorophyll to. This phenomenon spans the spectrum of light available for photosynthesis.

The chlorophyll is found in distinct organelles in plant cells called chloroplasts, where photosynthesisoccurs. Each chloroplast there are a number of membranes containing photosynthetic pigments, the thylakoids.


In plants, the photosynthetic process occurs in two stages:

The slope of the light stage, pigments absorb wavelengths that "break" or break down molecules of water (H2O) which the vegetable incorporates the foreign environment. This stage are ion hydrogen (H +), participating in the next stage, and oxygen (O2) which is released into the environment as waste. Stage not slope of light, carbon dioxide (CO2) that the vegetable incorporates the external environment is combined with the resulting hydrogen (H +) ions in the previous stage. In this process energyis used, i.e. is an anabólica reaction and its product is glucose, a carbohydrate that stores the energy necessary for the life of plants.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Alternative energy for the Betterment of Earth technologies

Sources of fossil fuels are declining day by day. In addition, the burning of fossil fuels causes many harmful effects on the environment. Unfortunately we can not avoid any of these situations.

The only way out is if totally rid of the use of fossil fuels and use alternatives. There are many alternative energy technologies that will reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.

Solar energy is a great alternative to fossil fuels, as most of the energy comes from the Sun's rays. Windmills also produce energy, referred to as wind power.

A third, but less well known typeface, offshore energy, generated with the help of the waves and water currents.

These three alternative energy technologies are at the top of the list and have great potential in the future. There are many other available alternatives, but which are not yet in general use.

Solar, wind and sea powers are the natural resources that can generate huge amounts of energy.

Solar energy:

These days the solar energy is the superior alternative energy technology and is used more.

Although for many years people have been aware of the fact that the Sun can generate electricity, due to the inexpensiveness and the abundance of fossil fuels, they become more popular and usable.

Through the use of the rays of the Sun with the help of the latest technologies, we can generate incredible amounts of energy. Around the world, people use solar energy to heat water for bathing and heating swimming pools.

Solar energy is a natural source of energy that provides hot water and electricity. It is also a cheap way to get energy.

Install this technology now is a good idea as solar collectors is more expensive in the future with increases in the prices of electricity, fossil fuels more scarce.

The most beneficial aspect of alternative energy technologies is not only they are harmless for the environment but also sustainable. If the Sun is there, the solar energy will be there.

Wind energy:

A technology of proven and additional alternative energy is wind power. Windmills have been in use for many years for grinding grain and pumping water. These were used to generate energy in European countries during the late 19th century.

Many researchers agree that wind energy is among the best energy alternatives. Worldwide there are many wind farms that use alternative technologies for energy generation.

Wind technology works with the help of a rotor attached three modules. As the wind blows, these three modules begin to spin the rotor. Finally the result in the generation of energy.

It's a very simple method to understand. Make use of this technology, the wind is the most important factor.

In many parts of the world there is not enough wind. But this alternative technology can be used in places like Wales in United Kingdom and Dakota North on United States, as well as off-shore in the oceans.

Offshore energy:

Research is ongoing on the use of the offshore as an alternative energy technology. However, more research is needed to fully understand this technology before recommending a solution of alternative energy.

As solar and wind energy, offshore energy will take some time to gain acceptance as a reliable alternative energy technology.

Monday, February 27, 2012

Alternative Energy Usage in Ireland

Ireland is pursuing energy independence by trying to develop to a larger extent the usage of alternative energy; one must take into consideration the fact that Ireland benefits from a robust economy, allowing it to research and develop resource encompassing alternative energies. During modern days, almost ninety percent of the energy needs are accomplished by importation, from the energy that has become imported.

This makes Ireland extremely dependent on energetic supplies coming from foreign locations. It should come as no surprise that Ireland wants to get over this dependency and start producing energy of its own. Therefore, it is only natural that institutions and the government start thinking about alternative resources as a way to produce the energy the population needs. The EU has in fact implemented some regulations regarding reduction in emissions of harmful substance and gases in the air, including regulations on sulphuric oxide and nitric oxide.

Green energy has become therefore the one thing the EU strives to accomplish throughout all the member states. Hydroelectric power is now utilized in some areas inside Ireland for quite a long period of time and has so far, proved to be very effective in producing energy, by capturing the energy of the waves from Atlantic Ocean, which is on the western part of Ireland. This energy supply is now capable of producing the energy supply needed by the whole country.

As a matter of fact, in the future, Ireland may even become energy exporter, granted the fact that it can now exploit the very few natural resources it has for its own benefit. The energy potential is constituted in the fact that throughout the whole Ireland, big winds blow, there is close proximity to the ocean and one can derive energy from biomass resources. It could for instance, supply energy to the rest of Europe, energy produced from ocean waves and biomass fuels. For the moment, Ireland has concentrated its efforts in obtaining the fifteen percent barrier, that is, produce fifteen percent of the energy needed by the population through wind farms. This is in fact, a governmental objective for 2010. Not only the government, but also institutions and research institutes are combining efforts to be able to discover the ways Ireland can reduce its reliance on foreign produced energy.

Researchers are now studying the fields of the ocean wave energy so that the energy produced can cover much of the necessary amounts for the population. A test site designed for alternative energy has been created in Ireland, on the western coast, to better study ocean energy. The experimental site, also known as "Wavebob" helps researchers study on the spot the most efficient ways they could use ocean waves to produce energy. Judging by the efforts made leading to discovery, one can say that in the future, Ireland can become the market leader in the sector. Analysts believe that wave energy possesses the potential to change and that renewable energy may become the norm; if this is accomplished, then Ireland wouldn't have to depend anymore on the energy provided by others and could thus reduce the consumption of fossil fuels.

Many people believe that since the industry dealing with sugar beet has been shut down, this means that there is more Irish land available to use to construct alternative energy power plant, including plants designed for bioenergy production. Since renewable energy is now catering for only two percent of the energy consumed in Ireland, it is imperative to come up with a solution or solutions that will resolve the problem to a large extent. Biomass energies are fit to be fully exploited, because the answer lies in not using conventional methods of producing energies and adapting existing equipment in order to produce energy from other resources.

Saturday, February 25, 2012

US Virgin Islands Launches 15-Year Energy Initiative to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use 60%

Targeting new, emerging technologies in locations and environments where they can make the greatest impact makes a lot of sense, and when it comes to renewable energy, island communities, cities, and states fit the bill. A clean, renewable energy movement is afoot in Hawai’i, where proponents are laying out a path to a 100% renewable energy future. A similar initiative is underway in the US Virgin Islands.

Like Hawai’i, the USVI — at great and increasing costs — depends on oil imports to produce most of its electricity, nearly 100% of it in the case of the USVI. As a result, the Caribbean island territory’s 110,000 residents pay some $0.47 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for electricity — some 4-5x more than consumers in the continental US. USVI residents also depend on foreign oil to produce freshwater via seawater desalination.

USVI Governor John P. de Jongh Jr. and his administration are trying to change all that. Working with the DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Interior Dept., de Jongh has crafted a planning framework, the goal of which is to reduce fossil fuel use on the islands by 60% in the next 15 years.

Meeting a Long-term Challenge: The Rewards of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use

The USVI depends on tourism for some 80% of its economic activity. Tourists from other climates tend to really like their a/c. That makes reducing fossil fuel usage even more of a challenge, one that requires active support and participation all along the electricity production and consumption value chain — from consumers to power producers. Not the least among them is efficiently integrating a mix of intermittent, renewable energy resources into the grid and assuring a ready supply of high-quality electrical power. Another key aspect of achieving the program’s aims is winning lasting support from the islands’ residents and businesses.

The rewards are numerous, substantial, and lasting, however. Success in the USVI would not only yield multiple, long-term benefits economically, socially, and environmentally, but it would also lead to replicating the means and methods in the continental US.

“What we’re attempting to do is integrate every large portion of renewable energy into our system,” said Karl Knight, director of USVI’s Energy Office and a board member of the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, in an NREL press release. “Think of it as a pilot for how to integrate renewables as a large proportion of the grid.”

NREL has worked with USVI government, utilities, and public and private groups to map the island territory’s renewable energy potential in order to craft a workable plan that would result in renewable energy resources meeting its electricity needs by 2025. The plan calls for building out a mix of six different technologies. By far, the single largest source of potential fossil fuel reduction will come from another source, however — energy efficiency improvements.

The high cost of using oil to produce electricity and freshwater has put increasing strain on residents’ pocketbooks, low-income residents, and retirees, in particular. Their reduced personal income and spending has also constrained economic development.

“If the rate is going to be 40 cents a kilowatt hour or more, it shapes the type of business that’s willing to locate in the Virgin Islands,” Knight elaborated. “Our total dependence on oil for power generation in an era of expensive crude oil is having a huge impact.”

USVI’s Fossil Fuel Reduction Plan: Energy Efficiency and a Mix of Renewable Energy Resources

The USVI burns 2.6 million barrels of oil every year to generate electricity and desalinate seawater. Reducing this 60% by 2025 can be achieved by the following mix of renewable energy and energy efficiency improvements, according to the USVI-NREL plan:

“We think 60 percent is very realistic,” Knight said. “The government established that goal in collaboration with NREL and the Island Nations global partnership. They challenged Gov. de Jongh to be aggressive in his goal-setting and he took them up on it. We established the aggressive goal because we spend so much on energy. The only thing that people in the Virgin Islands talk about is the size of their electric bills.”

Improving the energy efficiency of the USVI electric utility is the most cost-effective, “low-hanging fruit” that should be taken advantage of, explained NREL’s Karen Petersen. Other measures that “will help immensely” are as simple as turning off lights in buildings and lowering the air conditioning in tourist hotels. “We’re working to create a whole cultural shift,” Petersen said. “They’re very conservative in their use of energy because of need, but it doesn’t necessarily revolve around an environmental ethic.”

Friday, February 24, 2012

UK & France in major nuclear reactor deal

UK Prime Minister Cameron deals directly with French President Sarkozy
EDF, Rolls Royce, and Areva will benefit

Two French nuclear giants, EDF and Areva, and Rolls-Royce, the flagship nuclear firm in the UK, are signing deals worth {l}500 million ($791 million) to build new nuclear reactors in the UK. (EDF press release)

The deals are focused on the first new build at Hinkley Point in the UK. EDF has referenced the 1600 MW Areva EPR reactor design for that site.

The UK government said in a statement the deal will create 1500 new jobs. The statement went on to point out the agreement advances greenhouse gas emission reduction goals.

The British prime minister, David Cameron, who is in Paris to meet the French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, to seal the deal, said the agreements were “just the beginning” of investment the government says could be worth £60 billion and create 30,000 jobs.

The government said the joint declaration to be signed today will signal “our shared commitment to the future of civil nuclear power, setting out a shared long term vision of safe, secure, sustainable and affordable energy, that supports growth and helps to deliver our emission reductions targets”.

The two governments will work together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “to strengthen international capability to react to nuclear emergencies and establish a joint framework for cooperation and exchanging good practice on civil nuclear security”.

The announcement comes just eight months after the Fukushima nuclear reactor crisis. It demonstrates the commitment of the two nations to use nuclear energy to address their needs for electricity. The UK government has identified eight sites for new reactors. (see table below)

Deal highlights

NucNet reports that highlights of the deal include;

• A £100 million contract with a construction consortium to prepare the Hinkley Point nuclear site in Somerset for construction of two European Pressurised Water Reactors (EPRs).

• A £15 million training campus at Bridgewater in Somerset to train the next generation of nuclear workers.

• A deal with Rolls Royce for key components that could be worth potentially up to £400 million. Rolls Royce plans to build a purpose-built factory in Rotherham, northern England, which is also the site of the Nuclear Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre, which helps firms become certified nuclear suppliers.

A Rolls Royce spokesman said the hope is that the factory will become “some sort of springboard” for nuclear export orders in future.

A key isue facing EDF and the other firms planning to build nuclear power plants in the UK is that they are merchants. They cannot recover construction costs until the plants enter revenue service.

Challenges ahead

A nuclear energy expert with experience in the UK told this blog the current UK government was elected with a strong pledge to not subsidize new nuclear.

In summary the expert said the UK government has developed a set of incentives as a part of a wider Electricity Market Reform. In August 2011, the basic principles of the reforms were approved, with carbon floor prices, low-carbon, base load generation, etc.

But the second important stage, setting carbon prices, has not taken place. The government now says it will release that information in May 2012.

The delay adds a factor of uncertainty to the futue of the UK new build. Natural gas prices will rise over time so that may be less of a factor by the time the reactors come online by the end of this decade.

Scope of the UK new build

In November 2011 EDF Energy applied for consent from the UK’s Infrastructure Planning Commission to build and operate two new nuclear reactor units at Hinkley Point. The France-based utility plans to construct the two EPRs to the west of its existing Hinkley Point B nuclear plant, where there are two units in commercial operation.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Wireless power could revolutionize highway transportation

A Stanford University research team has designed a high-efficiency charging system that uses magnetic fields to wirelessly transmit large electric currents between metal coils placed several feet apart. The long-term goal of the research is to develop an all-electric highway that wirelessly charges cars and trucks as they cruise down the road.

The new technology has the potential to dramatically increase the driving range of electric vehicles and eventually transform highway travel, according to the researchers. Their results are published in the journal Applied Physics Letters (APL).

"Our vision is that you'll be able to drive onto any highway and charge your car," said Shanhui Fan, an associate professor of electrical engineering. "Large-scale deployment would involve revamping the entire highway system and could even have applications beyond transportation."

Driving range

A wireless charging system would address a major drawback of plug-in electric cars -- their limited driving range. The all-electric Nissan Leaf, for example, gets less than 100 miles on a single charge, and the battery takes several hours to fully recharge.

A charge-as-you-drive system would overcome these limitations. "What makes this concept exciting is that you could potentially drive for an unlimited amount of time without having to recharge," said APL studyco-author Richard Sassoon, the managing director of the Stanford Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), which funded the research. "You could actually have more energy stored in your battery at the end of your trip than you started with."

The wireless power transfer is based on a technology called magnetic resonance coupling. Two copper coils are tuned to resonate at the same natural frequency -- like two wine glasses that vibrate when a specific note is sung. The coils are placed a few feet apart. One coil is connected to an electric current, which generates a magnetic field that causes the second coil to resonate. This magnetic resonance results in the invisible transfer of electric energy through the air from the first coil to the receiving coil.

"Wireless power transfer will only occur if the two resonators are in tune," Fan noted. "Objects tuned at different frequencies will not be affected."

In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology used magnetic resonance to light a 60-watt bulb. The experiment demonstrated that power could be transferred between two stationary coils about six feet apart, even when humans and other obstacles are placed in between.

"In the MIT experiment, the magnetic field appeared to have no impact on people who stood between the coils," Fan said. "That's very important in terms of safety. "

Wireless charging

The MIT researchers have created a spinoff company that's developing a stationary charging system capable of wirelessly transferring about 3 kilowatts of electric power to a vehicle parked in a garage or on the street.

Fan and his colleagues wondered if the MIT system could be modified to transfer 10 kilowatts of electric power over a distance of 6.5 feet -- enough to charge a car moving at highway speeds. The car battery would provide an additional boost for acceleration or uphill driving.

Here's how the system would work: A series of coils connected to an electric current would be embedded in the highway. Receiving coils attached to the bottom of the car would resonate as the vehicle speeds along, creating magnetic fields that continuously transfer electricity to charge the battery.

To determine the most efficient way to transmit 10 kilowatts of power to a real car, the Stanford team created computer models of systems with metal plates added to the basic coil design.

"Asphalt in the road would probably have little effect, but metallic elements in the body of the car can drastically disturb electromagnetic fields," Fan explained. "That's why we did the APL study -- to figure out the optimum transfer scheme if large metal objects are present."

Using mathematical simulations, postdoctoral scholars Xiaofang Yu and Sunil Sandhu found the answer: A coil bent at a 90-degree angle and attached to a metal plate can transfer 10 kilowatts of electrical energy to an identical coil 6.5 feet away.

"That's fast enough to maintain a constant speed," Fan said. "To actually charge the car battery would require arrays of coils embedded in the road. This wireless transfer scheme has an efficiency of 97 percent."

Wireless future

Fan and his colleagues recently filed a patent application for their wireless system. The next step is to test it in the laboratory and eventually try it out in real driving conditions. "You can very reliably use these computer simulations to predict how a real device would behave," Fan said.

The researchers also want to make sure that the system won't affect drivers, passengers or the dozens of microcomputers that control steering, navigation, air conditioning and other vehicle operations.

"We need to determine very early on that no harm is done to people, animals, the electronics of the car or to credit cards in your wallet," said Sven Beiker, executive director of the Center for Automotive Research at Stanford (CARS). Although a power transfer efficiency of 97 percent is extremely high, Beiker and his colleagues want to be sure that the remaining 3 percent is lost as heat and not as potentially harmful radiation.

Some transportation experts envision an automated highway system where driverless electric vehicles are wirelessly charged by solar power or other renewable energy sources. The goal would be to reduce accidents and dramatically improve the flow of traffic while lowering greenhouse gas emissions.

Beiker, who co-authored the APL study, said that wireless technology might one day assist GPS navigation of driverless cars. "GPS has a basic accuracy of 30-40 feet," he said. "It tells you where you are on the planet, but for safety, you want to make sure that your car is in the center of the lane." In the proposed system, the magnetic fields could also be used to control steering, he explained. Since the coils would be in the center of the lane, they could provide very precise positioning at no extra cost.

The researchers also have begun discussions with Michael Lepech, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, to study the optimal layout of roadbed transmitters and determine if rebar and other metals in the pavement will reduce efficiency.

"We have the opportunity to rethink how electric power is delivered to our cars, homes and work," Fan said. "We're used to thinking about power delivery in terms of wires and plugging things into the wall. Imagine that instead of wires and plugs, you could transfer power through a vacuum. Our work is a step in that direction."

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Alternative energy - the advantages

Your continued use of fossil fuels has come under a lot of scrutiny recently. We hear about alternative energy and how it should be used instead of fossil fuels. He entertained in this thinking? I wonder what are the advantages of the use of alternative energy and how it can benefit from it?

It will answer these questions for you, but first, let's be clear about what renewable or alternative energy. Alternative energy is the term used for non-fossil energy sources. Although not all the alternative renewable energy sources, for our purposes of discussion, we shall confine ourselves to renewable energy resources.

Renewable energy sources are those that can not be exhausted and will therefore never be implemented. Examples of these are Sun, wind, water, tides, waves and still many others. To illustrate this point, imagine using wind energy to generate electricity for your home. The wind is always in the atmosphere, blowing in your environment. His strength and speed is not always the same, but you can be sure that the use of this energy now will not decrease its offer of wind in the future.

In fact, this is an obvious advantage of the use of renewable or alternative energy. To differ from fossil fuels where the supply of which is in rapid decline, never have to worry about running out of renewable energy. It will not happen.

Another very important advantage of the use of alternative energy is its contribution to environmental well-being. The burning of fossil fuels, a necessary process in turning them into a consumable energy, pollute the environment in a manner not repairable. Global warming, or global warming of the Earth due to the increased emission of GHGs in the atmosphere, is a problem very prevalent faced around the world. And fossil fuels are a major contributor to this environmental concern.

On the other hand, the use of renewable energy sources do not bring a higher emission of greenhouse gases because burning is no longer required for its use. Also, alternative energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, energy from hydro, tidal energy and wave energy are clean and unpolluted. Thus, in addition to not add to pollution by greenhouse gases improved, these types of alternative energy do not contribute to other forms of environmental degradation. Everything that affects the use of renewable energy sources entails, is minimal compared to the consequences of the use of fossil fuels.

In addition, the use of alternative energy will benefit the local economy because we no longer need to import fossil fuels to generate electricity. Will now be generated locally electricity, also will mean more employment opportunities for the locals.

The use of alternative energy sometimes require substantial investments of capital, but in the long run, no doubt will be more profitable for the economy or investor, especially because the offer is virtually free. And more importantly, will be the lowest cost to the environment.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

The Tesla generator is an important source of alternative energy

Alternative sources of energy are organic and help improve the environment because these sources of energy does not emit toxic emissions as traditional energy production. In addition, alternative energy sources use inexhaustible energy sources and aid in the conservation of scarce natural resources. These are some of the alternative sources of energy and its advantages.

First of all let's the millennial wind use as energy source has already been used for centuries. This particular energy source takes advantage of its rapid movement of air to power the blades of the turbine. The power of resulting rotation then becomes usable energy with the help of generators. In the past, windmills were quite popular that transforms the mechanical movement of the blade in physical energy for grinding grain and pumping water.

One of the main disadvantages of wind energy is due to the variation in the flow of the wind and the result is an inconsistent flow of power. Another disadvantage is that this form of energy storage for later use.

Solar energy is an alternative source of energy, use of solar energy to power a number of devices and is commonly used for home interior, heating and cooking. The energy obtained from the rays of the Sun turns into electrical energy. Even a simple act allow sunlight into the room to produce heat is a passively for this type of energy.

There are two main drawbacks in using solar energy. It may not be produced during the night or on cloudy days. Another major problem is that the construction of huge solar panels require large initial cost; Therefore the majority of people stay away from the use of this energy.

Geothermal means the heat of the Earth. Geothermal alternative resources use heat stored below the Earth's surface. Hot rock underground Molten heated underground water to generate steam. Then the high-pressure steam is released through holes drilled in large quantities to run huge turbines.

The main drawbacks when the use of geothermal energy is

If the power generation process is not properly, geothermal energy production produces pollutants harmful and this result in the release of harmful gases and release of ore. Another drawback is that the energy obtained from geothermal sites is limited to the exhaustion of steam.

Hydropower has been used as a source of energy for centuries. Hydroelectricity uses hydraulic power to works like other resources alternative and generators and turbines of the unit. This special energy is to take advantage of water dammed. Electric turbine generators are driven by the gravitational attraction from which water flows. Hydro generators can be used to store water for future use, also for running backwards.

The main problem with this particular type of energy is that it is very expensive to build hydroelectric dams. There are important limitations that this form of energy can not be channelled in areas with a powerful insufficient supply of water.

On the other hand the Tesla generator is unusual in that was invented more than a hundred years ago and still only recently it has become a viable alternative energy source. Using a Tesla generator to turn your House into home to alternative energy is an ecological as well as highly profitable option. Tesla generators outweigh all disadvantages of other alternative sources of energy.

These easy to use compact generators can be constructed in less than $100 and they can produce up to 4.5 megawatts of power. This is enough to fuel alternative energy full House continuously with electricity spare.

A user can integrate all the necessary components of these dynamic generators in a fully functional unit in less than an hour. In addition, the Government pays the discount the user to generate excess electricity. And this is another great advantage of using these generators.

Finally, these generators small Tesla take up very little space and are light in weight which can be easily along the camping or hiking trips. There now is no need to lose valuable natural resources and money. Build your own Tesla generator with minimum budget and pride themselves on saving money, as well as natural resources.

Monday, February 20, 2012

Renewable Energy Has Grown a Ton Since 1970 in the US, but…

David Roberts of Grist recently shared a couple of interesting graphics (in particular, when compared) from Black & Veatch.

Here are Roberts’ succinct notes on renewable energy projects visible on the first map (below), which is of renewable energy projects in the U.S. up to 1970: “One, there weren’t very many! Two, they weren’t very big. And three, they were all biomass. In other words, in 1970, renewable energy in the U.S. was effectively nonexistent.”

And some of Roberts’ apt comments on the next, much different graphic: “The point the B&V analyst takes from that is that Solyndra is a sideshow. It’s not going to stop the march of renewables in the U.S. And that’s undoubtedly true.

The point I take, of course, is that this growth is impressive but not nearly fast enough. In 10 years, I want the gray U.S. map to be invisible beneath a blanket of multi-colored dots. Get on it, people!”

I don’t think there’s much to add — renewable energy growth has been tremendous in the U.S. in the past few decades, but it needs to be MUCH MORE tremendous in the coming decades. (Have you gone renewable yet?

Have you pushed your Congressman to support renewable energy yet?)

View the original article here

Sunday, February 19, 2012

The UK Feed-In Tariff Saga Continues…

This is a special guest post from Martin Breeman of Intelligent Energy Solutions, a regular reader of our site. Enjoy his useful perspective on the crazy story (as it now stands) regarding the UK’s solar feed-in-tariff scheme:

At a time when unemployment is reaching record levels in the UK, people could be forgiven for asking why the government insists on cutting the feed-in tariff rates for solar power in such a drastic manner, when they have been driving growth in the sector, creating much-needed jobs, and generating tax revenue. The main issue behind the government’s actions is that the feed-in tariff scheme is in danger of exceeding its budget, but the decision to cut the rate before the consultation period had finished simply didn’t make sense, which is why the High Court deemed it to be illegal.

Similarly, the government’s choice to appeal this decision doesn’t seem to make much sense either, and it has only served to cast a shadow of uncertainty over the UK solar power industry. It’s clear that the economy is stuttering with several growth forecasts downgraded over the course of 2011, and it’s quite hard to see where the recovery might come from, with many experts predicting more trouble for Europe in 2012. This is why it is important for the UK to generate its own domestic demand without relying on export-led growth from Europe and the solar power industry, one area which has been thriving from the government support in the form of feed-in tariffs.

Many academics and experts in economics often discuss ways to stimulate an economic recovery, and their focus often includes government investment in infrastructure projects, which create much-needed jobs. This includes areas such as transport, housing, and energy, which is why the decision to halve the feed-in tariff for solar panels with such a short notice period has been criticised by many supporters of clean energy.

With the scheme in danger of surpassing its budget, action needs to be taken, which includes either reducing the feed-in tariff or extending the budget. If the government chooses to reduce the tariff, this should be carried out in small steps over a long period to reduce the impact on an industry that has experienced a recent and rapid expansion. The alternative is to extend the budget to support the 4,000 solar businesses operating across the UK, but there appears to be very little discussion on this choice, which may show that the government doesn’t even consider it an option.

The UK government’s commitment to clean energy will be closely examined in the coming months and the manner in which it chooses to reduce feed-in tariff rates will have a significant impact on one of the only industries helping to stimulate growth and create jobs in the UK.

For those looking to install a solar PV system this year, Intelligent Energy Solutions suggests you make sure that the installation is completed and registered before the 31st of March 2012, to give you the best chance of receiving the original feed-in tariff.

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Waste Generation From Alternative Energy Sources

For many years we have been trying to get away from using fossil fuels and old inefficient electrical grinds. But, the move toward the widespread use of alternative energy sources has been a history of stop and goes attempts. Research and development of new technologies are needed for use to find cost-effective ways to harness this seemingly endless supply of clean, natural energy.

The most talked about form of alternative energy resources we can tap is wind power. The development and engineering of wind turbines continues to improve as the popularity, aka capital funding availability, spreads among the business community. In fact "wind farms" have begun to spring up across the world. The biggest issues with these wind farms are the noise vibration they emit and the danger to birds. No complete research has been completed to understand how the low ultrasonic vibrations may affect other wildlife; or humans.

Growing in popularity is solar energy. It is abundant and easy to capture for alternative energy use. The manufacturing of solar cells has rapidly developed with multiple uses adapted for small and even large scale applications. These solar cells gather the light energy given off by the sun which can be easily converted into electricity. It also is widely used to naturally generate hot water. Solar energy joins wind energy as alternative energy sources that create zero pollution. That is if you don't count sound or landscape alterations as pollution.

The largest and most abundant alternative energy source on earth is water. Governments and scientists backed by investors have been studying wave energy and the potential to tap it for clean energy. France has been operating a generator for a few years to study this potential and initial reports are promising.

The ocean is not the primary focus for water based alternative energy. Electricity has been generated from hydroelectric plants for almost a century. Places on earth that have a ready supply of adequate water sources such as rivers and lakes are in perfect position to generate clean energy. The issue becomes more complicated when a dam needs to be generated to create sufficient water flow to power the generators. Dams are not friendly to the wildlife and organisms in the area a dam may be built.

More recent technological advancements have opened the door to consider new alternative energy sources.

The first of these energy sources is energy we can create from the waste that people generate every day. Consider the number of landfills and expended oils. Methane gas can be captured and used to power generators. Not exactly "clean" gas but cleaner that coal and heavy oil. Waste oils from industrial and food consumption is likewise usually dumped. These waste oils can be used to power heaters and boilers to produce heat and steam as a power source.

Though the use of ethanol seems to have a very negative impact on the world's fuel supply it may prove beneficial in areas that can't efficiently tap into hydropower. We can't afford to use or food sources of wheat, sugarcane, grapes, strawberries and corn to provide us fuel when we need the nourishment for our personal source of energy. Likewise the consumption of soybean, rapeseed, and sunflower oils for bio diesel production is causing havoc on the world's food supply.

You can't discuss alternative energy without mentioning atomic energy from nuclear power plants. There is no alternative energy source that neither is as efficient nor can generate the enormous amount of clean pure energy than nuclear power. The waste product is the expended atomic energy that remains radioactive for hundreds of years. The amount of this waste product however, is minuscule relative to waste generated from other alternative energy sources.

You cannot create energy without some form of waste generation.

Friday, February 17, 2012

Solar Panels Creating Electricity for Much Longer than 20 Years

As indicated in a study Josh wrote on just a couple weeks ago, the lifespan of a solar power system is far longer than the 20 years most analysts use to calculate solar power costs. Last November, Susan featured one that was going strong at 30 years.

A Facebook fan notes that solar panels at the Technical University of Berlin have been in operation for 31 years. Similarly, Kyocera, one of the oldest solar panel manufacturers in the world, recently posted on the fact that a number of its early installations continue to generate electricity reliably nearly 30 years after installation.

kyocera solar panels have long lifespan

I would also note that technology has improved, solar panels have become more durable, and if early solar panels produce electricity for far more than 20 (or even 25) years, what to expect of today’s solar panels?!

Here are a few case studies Kyocera highlighted in its recent article on the matter:

In 1984, Sweden’s first grid-connected photovoltaic system was built in Stockholm. Since its installation, the façade-mounted 2.1kW system has been continuously and reliably providing the residents of an apartment building with environmentally-friendly electricity. The modules’ average annual power generation performance is still reliable — with no significant change since the system was installed 27 years ago.

Also in 1984, Kyocera established its Sakura Solar Energy Center just outside of Tokyo. At the time, the Center was equipped with a 43kW solar power generating system which to this day continues to generate a stable amount of power for the facility.

In 1985, Kyocera made a donation of a 10kW solar power generation system to a small farming village with no electrical infrastructure located at an elevation of 2,600m (8,500ft) in Gansu Province, China. In 1993, the area received electrical infrastructure, and the solar modules were moved to a regional research facility for clean energy, where after more than 25 years, they are still producing consistent levels of electricity.

View the original article here

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Thoughts on 10 Questions about Climate Change from Australia

Over recent weeks one of the major Australian newspapers (The Melbourne Age) has asked readers to submit questions on climate change and at the same time opened a poll so that all readers could vote on the questions they most wanted to see answered. The newspaper pledged to investigate and attempt to answer the top ten questions. The poll closed last weekend and the questions are now in. As promised, The Age has started to answer them. Without getting too lengthy and also drawing on many previous postings (so excuse the links), here are some thoughts from me on the ten questions (with abbreviated questions as headings – but click here to see the full questions:

1. Can Australia make a difference by taking action?

While it is true that Australian emissions are small on a global scale and that therefore even reducing them to zero wouldn’t be sufficient to affect levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, this isn’t a reason not to take action. Climate change is a collective issue, a tragedy of the commons, which requires collective action to solve. No one country, region or industrial sector can solve this unilaterally. Even if the big three, China, the USA and the major EU economies acted alone (with China reaching a plateau in the short term and then reducing by 50% by 2050 and the US and EU reducing by 80% by 2050), global emissions would plateau at best assuming that the rest of the world emissions grew by no more than 1.5% per annum over the next 40 years (in fact they have been growing at well over 2% p.a. over recent decades). So this issue needs a response from all nations, including Australia.

Will Australia inspire other nations? This isn’t the primary motivation of acting and in any case many nations around the world are beginning to move on this issue and take action. The responses still vary widely, but they are underway. For example, Canada is developing legislation to stop the further construction of coal fired power stations, unless carbon capture and storage is utilised. China is now very close to introducing a carbon price into some parts of its economy and California is starting up a cap-and-trade system. The list is long and growing, even though the sum total of global efforts fall short of the necessary level of ambition.

2. What about agricultural emissions?

There is no doubt that agricultural emissions are important. As such, they featured in some detail in a recent study released by WWF and Ecofys which looks at the feasibility of a near zero emissions world by 2050. Although the primary focus of the report is energy, there is much said about agriculture because of the growing interaction with the energy system. For example, see page 62 of the report for a series of recommendations that relate to food and agriculture.

3. Isn’t it true that the magnitude of future warming is not “settled science”, but in fact highly uncertain?

Climate change is all about uncertainty, but a great deal of work has been done in this field. The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change focuses considerable effort on communicating the risk and uncertainty (The Greenhouse Gamble) related to climate change. But importantly it also demonstrates that a policy led approach to managing emissions can shift the risk and offer benefits over the long term.

4. Shouldn’t we just go nuclear?

At least for the time being, there is no single solution to this issue. We will need a broad range of solutions. Even in France where nuclear has grown to dominate (~80%) the electricity sector over the last 40 years, emissions have only fallen by 14% (from 435 MT to 374 MT from 1971 to 2008 according to the IEA).

5. Are climate skeptics funded by industrial concerns so as to maintain the status quo?

The origins of climate skepticism and the driving force behind it is examined in great detail by Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway in their book “Merchants of Doubt”. This is an excellent read and turns up some surprising answers, linking those who question and challenge the issue of climate change with the same people and groups who challenged tobacco as a cause of cancer, acid rain and the destruction of forests, chlorofluorocarbons and the thinning of the ozone layer and so on.

6. Why is there so little investigative journalism into the science and its flaws.

This is because the science isn’t flawed. Yes, there remains uncertainty, but new research is refining and improving our knowledge of the Earth’s climate system and how it is expected to respond to increasing levels of CO2. I discussed the science in some detail in a recent post.

7. Renewables are viable now, so why do we need coal and uranium for baseload power?

A number of renewable technologies offer a great deal of potential and some are being widely deployed, such as onshore wind. But there are limits to the rate at which these new technologies can be fully developed and deployed. As such, we will need a broad range of energy technologies for a long time to come. My colleagues in the Shell scenarios team wrote about these limits in an article published in Nature late in 2009 and I discussed it in a posting at that time.

8. Is it possible to have a fruitful debate on the science given existing belief structures?

As mentioned above, I discussed the science at some length in a recent posting. But we do seem to live in a world today that is becoming detached from science, despite our increasing dependency and love of technology. I wrote a post on this last year. Perhaps belief structures are getting in the way, an issue which is also discussed by Naomi Oreskes in the book mentioned above.

9. How do the Liberal Party’s policies compare with other centre-right policies around the world?

I don’t think there is such a strong link between political leaning and climate policy, despite the rhetoric on this subject. Policy approaches vary widely around the world as do the governments that set them. For example, in the EU where there are 27 Member States with governments covering a broad range of the political spectrum, including many centre-right governments, there is a comprehensive climate change policy framework now in place which includes emissions trading, long term targets and tough energy efficiency goals. This policy framework goes beyond any of the party proposals under consideration in Australia today, but equally it has been in development for nearly ten years. It started out very modestly. In North America where there has been little progress on climate legislation at the federal level, many US States and Canadian Provinces, again covering a broad range of the political spectrum, have implemented far reaching emissions management policies. In the United States it was the Republican Party (centre-right) which introduced cap-and-trade (emissions trading) to the world when they decided to use that policy instrument to manage sulphur emissions from power stations in the 1980s.

10. Why should we believe the science when there is no observed relationship between climate and atmospheric CO2?

There is really no question of a relationship between climate and atmospheric CO2. This was shown over 100 years ago and explains very clearly and without challenge why the surface of the planet is temperate where a simple heat / radiation balance calculation shows that it should be frozen. The issue is therefore how much more change will occur as we double or triple the level of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

White House Issues Apology By Jaczko

Chief of Staff Bill Daley breaks White House silence over escalating conflicts about the NRC

The shouting may be over in the long simmering dispute that broke out into the open last Friday at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko has issued an apology via the White House to the other four commissioners who jointly signed a letter complaining about his management practices.

A hearing by the House Oversight Committee scheduled for Wednesday December 14 will not see the fireworks that were expected as a result of the heated accusations that were exchanged today between committee chair Darrell Issa (R-Calif) and Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass) on the MSNBC TV network. Their verbal fireworks threatened to derail any effort to contain the conflict.

Now, it is more likely that the hearing will include acts of contrition and pledges for better communication among the five commissioners. Skeptics think it won't last much longer than the late night news coverage, but stranger things have happened in DC. The good news is there are no allegations of financial wrong doing and no got drunk and jumped in the reflecting pool with a stripper.

Daley said in his letter that he believes the sources of the conflict can be addressed and he emphasized that while this is taking place that there will be no compromise of safety at the nation's 104 nuclear reactors.

Rep. Issa is not convinced that an olive branch has been extended by Jaczko or the White House. He said in a statement released late Monday evening that "the White House is in denial" about the serious nature of infighting at the NRC.

White House wakes up and smells the coffee

These late breaking events follow an action packed Monday of meetings in which Daley and other White House staff worked to stave off a major meltdown of the regulatory agency.

According to press reports about Daley's letter to Issa, Jaczko has issued a personal apology and will seek third party mediation to help work out the differences that have emerged between him and the other four commissioners.

"The chairman apologized for the distractions caused by the present tensions and has taken responsibility for improving communications among the commissioners," Daley wrote.

Daley also wrote, "We have concluded that while there are tensions and disagreements among the commissioners, these management differences have not impaired the commission's ability to fulfill its mission"

From that formal language it appears that the White House counsel is in the picture reminding the President what happens to the nation's electricity supply if the NRC is determined to be non compos mentis. Based on the letter the four commissioners sent on October 13, all five have had plenty of reasons to be distracted even if they also contributed to the fray by responding to perceived as well as real provocation. Now, the White House says, it is time for the nonsense to stop.

A white dove flies over troubled waters

The White House had little choice but to get Jaczko to make a peace offering while also backing him in the position. Many who have rankled, with some justification, at Jaczko's erratic tenure at the NRC feel this may be a time when he might be forced to leave the agency or to step down as chairman. Neither is likely to happen as replacing him would be politically difficult.

But once his disputes went public, he became a liability, but not for the reasons that ordinarily come to mind. In terms of realist politics, Jaczko was given the job for one reason, and that was to bottle up the Yucca Mountain project by preventing the license application from ever getting a hearing.

In the world of political appointments in Washington, DC, when people get mission focused tasks like that, they are supposed to do their job, and then keep their head down on all other matters.

Jaczko became a liability because he disregarded this salient piece of advice getting into a high profile series of ego driven personality conflicts with the other commissioners. Again, from the point of view of realist politics, it was an unwise series of moves that could mark the rest of his career because he blew up the one reason he was useful to the Obama White House.

Who's the real opponent of Yucca Mountain?

Sen. Harry Reid has long been tagged as the point man for opposition to Yucca Mountain. In point of fact, he was a very convenient point man too giving the Obama campaign in 2008 a made to order wedge issue to win Nevada electoral votes,

It was the President who appointed Jaczko to the NRC and the fact that he came from Reid's staff is simply the mechanics of DC politics.

While Jaczko had previously worked for anti-nuke arch druid Rep. Ed Markey, that probably didn't matter to the wonkish Obama White House which may have been more impressed with his Ph.D. in physics from a top university.

The president needs to win Nevada again in 2012, and he needs Yucca to remain dead dead dead. But Jaczko made himself a target by pestering the other four commissioners over penny ante stuff like travel, staff assignments, and an unpleasant management style. Of course the iceberg that was 7/8ths under water was the dispute over the Yucca Mountain license. You wouldn't know it from the newspaper headlines.

The White House got an apology from Jaczko because he was no longer following the mandate of do one thing, do it well, and don't make waves on anything else.

The four commissioners shouldn't take the apology personally for the simple reason it isn't about them. Jaczko's mea culpa is to the White House and Congress over forgetting why he got the job.

Jaczko is smart guy, but the train of events indicates that that he might have outsmarted himself. It's a hard lesson to learn. Maybe now the NRC can get back to work.

View the original article here

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Use the power of the Sun as a source of alternative energy and save

Getting the world to shift away from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources whenever and wherever possible is the reason for this article because i really believe in a better tomorrow with a cleaner planet for everyone to enjoy.

Having crystal clear water to drink fresh from any source anywhere without having to clean it with chemicals and processes and fresh clean air to breath without any co2's or diesel fuel emission or any other chemicals in it which makes up the soup we breath today - should be our rights. With all the natural disasters like floods and hurricanes and the continually changing weather patterns should be enough to make everyone think seriously of using alternate green sources of energy to supply energy needs.

So, that being said i think everyone should try to convert totally or at least half of all their energy needs from gas / coal or electricity ( from electrical plants ) to alternative clean energy sources - be it wind power, solar power or zero point power which is made using magnets or even wave and tidal power. Lead by example and people will follow. I myself own an adult electric tricycle and i use it for all my intercity trips ( shopping / visiting ), it saves me on gas and works even in the winter. I get compliments all the time for how cool it is and let me say just about everybody wants one.

Solar Power Your Life

Did you know that harnessing and converting the energy coming from our Sun as a source is one of the coolest and most talked about ways for producing alternative energy these days? Using solar panels to gather the heat rays from the Sun and then convert them into electricity is just starting to catch on and you can learn to use it to power your lights in your home or instead of gas to heat your home. You can also convert your car to electricity and just plug it in to recharge it at your own house for next to nothing. Hey business owners you can power your business with solar power too. The best thing about converting your home and business to solar power is that it can and will be able to take care of all of everyone's energy needs far into the future at a fraction of the cost of purchasing from electrical retailers and will only create a fraction of the pollutants.

In researching which alternative energy source to use you will want to make sure that you seriously take solar power into consideration by learning all the advantages this alternative power source has to offer, it would well be worth your time and effort to do the research before starting any project.

Money Concerns Will Make You Take Solar Power Seriously

Pretty soon everyone will have to start taking solar power seriously anyway because purchasing electricity from retailers is going to start taking up more and more of peoples disposable incomes and soon will become to expensive for the average family and it's up to you to lead the way and convert your home to a clean alternate energy source and to make sure all of the others in your family get into thinking how to save energy and use it more wisely while they're still young and impressionable. Try making up games to play together for brainstorming ideas on how to save energy. Here's a couple of ideas to start off with - 1 - sell off a TV set so the family can gather in one room to watch TV together instead of separately on different sets, just doing this can save some money and bring your family back together as a loving family unit for a result and - 2 - convert you car to electricity and save on transportation costs and at the same time you will be helping to save the environment too.

Modern Times Call for Modern Thinking

It is the modern times and there are modern ways to approach things like electricity and transportation. You really should want to help the world to clean the atmosphere that we have been destroying for a hundred years by making sure the energy sources and any way we use them give off fewer pollutants and help preserve and possibly rejuvenate the Earth for future generations.

I'll bet that you and others you know use solar power and don't even know it. I'm sure someone you know owns a swimming pool, well,the blanket they put over it when nobody is using it is called a solar blanket which is a crude but is still an effective type of solar energy. The solar blanket helps harness the suns warmth and then transfers it to the water keeping the pool at a more palatable temperature. This way you don't need to use a direct heating source to keep your pool comfortably heated and this saves you money not having to use electricity to do this job for you. Surely this is not same way of collecting the Sun's power and converting it into easy to use electricity, however it is the idea that started the ball rolling on solar energy.

Solar - The Way To Go

The Sun has enough energy to power yours and everyone's lives on the planet with ease. Everybody needs to learn how to efficiently capture the Sun's energy by using solar panels, saving money and the planet as a spin-off benefit. Solar panels were designed for us to do just this.

The initial outlay for purchasing your own solar power generation system to power every aspect of your life can range anywhere from 10-25 thousand dollars depending on your lifestyle, however you can recuperate your costs within an average of 5-15 years through savings on electricity bills and if you enlarge your system so you make extra power you then sell to the electric suppliers break-even time will be shortened again.

Something you may not have thought of is that you can reduce your start-up and repair costs considerably by learning to do it all by yourself.

Nowadays it's easy to find solar panels at your local solar power retailer outlet but to save some money you should learn to build and install your own solar system. Adding enough panels to your project to totally convert your home to solar power and run all the appliances within is easily figured out and you may even add a couple extra panels to have a little left over energy to sell back to the power companies and pocket some profits. New and more efficient products are being developed every day to help you achieve this.

I must say this again - it is very important that you consider solar power and all that this technology can offer for the building or remodeling of a home or business so make sure to do the research and learn about it. Just imagine no more blackouts or problems with your outdoor lighting or security because the power is out. There is a never-ending list of uses for solar power and the sooner we convert the easier it will be for everyone to breathe easy again too.

Zero carbon emissions when using solar power

And when it comes to using solar power there are zero carbon emissions which today is what is ruining our environment, and with solar power there isn't any major pollution that you need to worry about. Only the batteries you use would fall into this category and if you just make sure to dispose of your used up batteries through a proper government-run disposal service you can be sure they know what they are doing and will dispose of it properly and in an environmentally friendly manner. All that you need to do is to be sure to extend the life of your batteries by keeping your batteries charged at all times and don't leave batteries under charged because this leads to lead sulfates accumulating and reducing the storage capacity of batteries.

Another thing is try to keep your battery cool and if at all possible try not placing it in a hot area like under the hood of your car. If you must do this place a heat shield over it to protect it from the heat that's under the hood of your car - excessive heat can reduce the life span of battery by 6-8 months. There are many different types of batteries and different little things you can do to extend their life. Like on a cell phone you can turn down the screen brightness to save on energy and recharging cycles (the less you need to recharge a battery the longer it will last). And when your batteries just don't perform as they should anymore another option you have is to recycle or recondition the batteries yourself. There are guides to teach you to do this and it's not as hard as you think.

Wind Power is Good But...

Don't get me wrong wind power will work fine but the maintenance of a wind turbine is a little costly because moving parts just seem to break more often and the windmill blades sometimes get bent in big storms leaving you scrambling to fix it, whereas solar panels require basically no maintenance but will incur replacement costs if one fails (try to keep a spare panel handy for just such an instance). But if you live in a place where light from the Sun is a little scarce then wind power generation is another way to go green and save, it's just a little more work.

An Inexhaustible Energy Source

The Sun is one energy source that we are going to be able to exploit for thousands of years to come. It is going to be there even when all other sources have become unavailable. You will find that there is a lot of solar-powered research being done today and it is the most promising future power source at the moment,who knows what the far future may bring.

However the future is happening now just look around and you will see all the solar-powered vehicles, lights, houses, offices and so much more. Actually go outside now and take a walk around your neighborhood and see all people who already use solar power these ways, just look for the solar panels outside a home or business or even the outside solar lights people use to light up their property and you know they are doing their part to save the environment, are you?

If you live in a hot and sunny climate you will find that solar panels are going to be the most efficient alternative power source for you, and the more sun your area receives the better it is for recharging you're system to full capacity everyday.

Read this article about a highly promising new solar panel technology ->

Do It All Yourself

Don't forget there are guides you can purchase to teach you how to build and set up your own system. These guides will help you learn to do this and are a good way that you can learn something which will save you money and will even help you put some away for a rainy day if you want. If you construct your own solar panels and do all the system set up yourself you can save thousands over paying an installer to do the work for you and that money will now stay in your pocket and now you won't have to pay the big electricity retail giants anything for their power because you will be enjoying the pride and joy of being self-sufficient when your finished.

On a Personal Note

I feel using any of the alternative green sources of energy generation is our duty to help alleviate the stress on all the coal-fired power plants and to save some hard-earned cash. If enough people switch their home energy source to solar maybe we could shut down some of them coal-fired electrical generation plants and be able to breath easier.

It's also my opinion that governments should retrofit all existing houses with solar panels and / or wind turbines to meet everyone's personal needs. Making repairs tax exempt and / or tax-deductible would help people pay for their own repairs and as a result everyone would live better and most of all more self-sufficient.

Businesses should have to retrofit their own businesses but the same tax exempt and / or tax-deductible offer should be given for repairs.

Purchasing a clean alternative energy should not cost a pound of flesh either, especially in cold climates where energy is needed to keep you warm and ALIVE. Governments must be made to understand this and quit giving approval for insane energy rate hikes year in and year out.

Keep an open mind and you will see that the new ways of producing clean green power has enough benefits to convince you to convert your life and believe me - you won't be disappointed.

Sunday, February 12, 2012

Water scarcity: reality or speech

Porto-Gonçalves in the problem analysis of the lack of water is really very interesting. In this first article we will concentrate only on one of the points that works how real is the concept of the "water scarcity".

Of all I recommend to read the full text of water does not deny to anyone, since it has no waste for whom we are concerned about such issues.

Porto-Gonçalves in the problem analysis of the lack of water is really very interesting. In this first article we will concentrate only on one of the points that works how real is the concept of the "water scarcity".

Of all I recommend to read the full text of water does not deny to anyone, since it has no waste for whom we are concerned about such issues.

Since the beginning the author tells us that there is a "speech of scarcity", and here, using the word "he remarks" marks clearly its position that this is a deliberate message and not a simple and innocent description of reality. And this founded it with figures who come to demonstrate that the situation is not as alarming as it seeks us to show.

As he tells Porto-Gonçalves, information circulating most commonly on the "stock" of drinking water as follows:

Planet Earth has 3/4 parts of water. Of this, 97% are the oceans and seas, which is why this water to salt, is not suitable for human consumption. Then is 3% of fresh water, but 2/3 of it are in solid state because they are ice and polar ice caps, ergo, are not available for human consumption at the end of the equation the result is that less than 1% of the total water on our planet would be safe.

This is the brief outline of the discourse from scarcity. And as brilliantly defines the author, it is "made" so that, in the end, the reader is already thirsty. There warns Porto-Gonçalves that we should not give by scientific any mere statistics because - as he says - there are a number of basic errors from the own scientific point of view in these numbers.

If these numbers are not entirely accurate, is because there are others factors were missing in the equation. And what we need to take into account is mainly that the fresh water on Earth is largely provided by the water cycle. And mostly as a result of evaporation from the oceans and seas.

Let's look at some data provides in this regard:

Approximately 505.000 Km3 evaporates each year of the oceans and seas (this is equivalent to a layer 1.4 metres thick on the surface of seas and oceans). Although these sources of water salt, salt is not transmitted in evaporation. Of these 505.000 Km3 80% returns to precipitate on the oceans and seas, but the remaining 20% drop over the continental surface. And the rains that fall on all continents, about 3/4 parts evaporate from lakes, ponds, rivers, soil and plants (evapotranspiration). It is 1/4 remaining drain to the sea again.

This cycle and these levels remain valid according to evidence from the last ice age. In other words, the amount of water available has not changed significant since at least 12,000 to 18,000 years ago.

Moreover, the amount of water available not only not declined but may even be increasing as a result of the melting of the polar ice caps and glaciers due to global warming. Although it sounds like a paradoja…

The question then seems to be that drinking water is not scarce at the global level. And however, according to UN reports nearly 3 billion people have no access to it. That leaves us thinking that the question to ask is not "does there is enough water for all?", but "who controls her?, and what uses it?".

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

Top 5 Benefits of Using Renewable Alternative Energy

Until some years back, the use of renewable alternative energy wasn't too well known. With time, as the danger of exhausting fossil fuels became a reality, science discovered the use of renewable alternative energy as en excellent way to fuel the energy needs of mankind. As a result, you can observe the use of solar energy, wind energy, water energy and so on, powering the energy needs.

All of this doesn't come with its benefits tied in. The best deal with renewable alternative energy is that you have many ways and methods of processing energy.

Here are the 5 top benefits of using renewable alternative energy

Elimination of solid waste - Every household delivers its share of household waste. By processing this household waste to generate energy, you could take care of a major environmental concern. By doing this, you ensure a clean environment and the dual benefit of generating energy from waste materials also ties in. These energy sources would never exhaust - Unlike coal, petrol and oil which are known to get exhausted with time, alternative energy sources would never run out of stock. For example, the odds of sun losing its heat, is extremely low.

Local production means energy at lower prices - If the developments in some countries could change the fortunes of petrol and oil prices, price changes due to uncontrollable factors is minimized with alternative energy methods. One can generate energy through this method, locally, which means the energy prices would now no longer have to depend on global conditions. Domestic demand meets domestic supply - For example, a society needs 100 MW of surplus power. To meet this power demand, the society could ask their city administration to provide them with surplus power. Alternatively, they could set up a solar power generator and work on self-providing energy. A clean future for mankind - The fact that fossil fuels when burnt or used, release toxic and poisonous gases like Carbon Monoxide, Lead Oxide and so on means they wouldn't be ideal for use, especially in the longer run. The good news is that with alternative energy, you wouldn't have to encounter any such disadvantage.

Out of every 4 individuals, 2 think of using renewable sources of energy for their energy and power needs. This indeed is a good enough transition in the minds of people, but considering the increased emphasis on global warming and pollution due to greenhouse gases, this percentage can only be seen going up.

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

The Use of Alternative Energy to Help Keep a Green Earth

La gran pregunta hoy es si va a reemplazar y reducir nuestros combustibles de hidrocarburos de dependencia como los combustibles del carbón y del petróleo. Energía alternativa es quizás uno de los más comentados y hablaba de recursos en la sociedad actual como un posible reemplazo de hidrocarburos. Es ha estimado que todos nuestros recursos naturales se habrán agotados completamente dentro de 150 años, y como tal tenemos que estar en continua búsqueda de las fuentes de energía alternativa viables.

Los tipos más comunes de energía alternativa actualmente en uso son la energía eólica, energía de hidromasaje y energía solar. Las fuentes de energía alternativas vayan de fenómenos naturales abundantes en el planeta, y como tales son en esencia libres. Es estas fuentes de energía alternativa que con frecuencia son perseguidas para proporcionar una fuente energética económicamente viable que puede ser utilizada por todo el planeta.

Echar un vistazo a estos tipos de recursos energéticos alternativos, somos capaces de ver las diferencias de cada uno y las ventajas que podrían tener sobre unos a otros como sustitutos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos.

Energía eólica

El uso de la energía eólica, mientras que una fuente de energía alternativa libre, sería en el escenario actual, la fuente de energía renovable más costosa. Los costos son elevados en gran medida en parte al hecho de que se genera viento turbinas deben ponerse en marcha a lo largo de los países con un número suficiente para garantizar la suficiente electricidad para satisfacer las necesidades de la población, esto incluye zonas donde la velocidad del viento no son muy fuertes. El evidente coste de construcción suficiente turbinas capaces de aprovechar la energía alternativa del viento es sorprendente.

Hoy es el uso actual en los países con la fuerza financiera para invertir en energía eólica y donde el clima permite suficiente viento alimentar las turbinas. Sin embargo, muchas granjas y comunidades rurales utilizan turbinas eólicas para proporcionar energía por sí mismos. En números bajos los costos inherentes de construir turbinas eólicas permite esa inversión a pagar por sí mismos muy rápidamente, sin embargo en grandes cantidades los costos aumentando gradualmente y como tal no han sido utilizados por muchos.

Energía solar

Como fuente de energía alternativa [], la energía solar se deriva el poder natural del sol. Aparte de la instalación del equipo necesario para convertir los rayos del sol en electricidad utilizable es generalmente libre. El costo del equipo necesario para aprovechar el poder del sol en los últimos días ha vuelto menos caro, principalmente debido a los avances en la tecnología. El costo de inversión para pequeñas instalaciones generalmente pagan por sí mismos con unos años más o menos.

Muchos de los viven en zonas tratando de ahorrar energía por tener rodando apagones a diario. Esto ya no es una preocupación para aquellos que utilizan la energía solar! Cuando se utiliza energía solar para alimentar su casa, mientras el generador está activado, tienes poder. La forma de que trabajan de estos generadores, es que durante el día la energía del sol se dibuja en el generador en celdas de almacenamiento. El generador convierte la energía solar almacenada en energía utilizable para su hogar. Esto significa que, incluso cuando el resto de la ciudad está bajo un apagón, tu casa puede seguir ejecutándose suavemente sobre energía solar.

Para los muchos que viven en zonas que están tratando de ahorrar energía por día y utilizando rodando día de apagones, el uso de la energía solar permite flexibilidad y pérdida de poder regular ya no sería un motivo de preocupación. Utilizando la energía solar en casa sólo requiere su generador esté activada para tener la potencia necesaria cuando se producen los apagones. Estos generadores funcionan de manera que durante el día la energía del sol se dibuja en los generadores a las celdas de almacenamiento y luego generador convierte la energía solar que se ha almacenado en las células en energía eléctrica utilizable para que una se utiliza en los hogares. En pocas palabras, apagones intermitentes o programadas permite todavía la casa todavía tener electricidad con esta fuente de energía alternativa.

Material necesario para construir sistemas para hacer uso de la energía solar como una fuente de energía alternativa para los hogares puede adquirirse fácilmente en la mayoría de las tiendas mejoramiento del hogar en las Naciones desarrolladas y ser instalada fácilmente en unas pocas horas. Paneles solares son fáciles de instalar en su cuenta, sin embargo hacerlo usted mismo a veces puede ser difícil, pero normalmente son contratistas que pueden hacer el trabajo de instalación de los paneles solares y generadores a un costo razonable.

Hydro Power

El uso del agua ha sido durante mucho tiempo en existencia particular su uso como un reemplazo de mano de obra, y también hay evidencia de algunos del primer uso comercial de hidromasaje poder como una energía alternativa están todavía en existencia hoy en el tan evidentes de fresado viejo y las instalaciones industriales. Hidromasaje poder hoy en día es poder productos utilizados en las escalas más grandes y las construcciones de represas y instalaciones de hidromasaje está aumentando debido a las preocupaciones sobre los recursos de hidrocarburos naturales agotamiento rápido.

Sin embargo, el uso de la potencia de hidromasaje y fuente de energía alternativa es limitado a zonas donde el agua es abundante y permite que el terreno natural para que pueda ser aprovechada en orden a turbinas que generan la electricidad necesaria. Algunos propietarios han sin embargo en los últimos tiempos comenzaron a dispositivo y desarrollar dispositivos para producir pequeñas cantidades de electricidad suficiente las necesidades de su hogar o granja al aire libre.

Mantener la tierra verde!

Utilizando fuentes de energía alternativas como la energía solar para proporcionar energía a su hogar es una de las mejores maneras en que puede ayudar a mantener la tierra verde! Energía solar no necesita quemar combustibles fósiles y de hidrocarburos y como tal le proporciona la energía necesaria sin agotar los recursos de tierras, teniendo en cuenta que en nuestras vidas no hay posibilidad de agotamiento de la energía del sol. El uso de esa energía alternativa asegura también que hacer su parte en mantener el medio ambiente más sano y limpio ya que no en todas formas contribuyen al agotamiento de los recursos naturales.

Independientemente de qué tipo o fuente de energía alternativa que decide utilizar para sus hogares, el hecho es que seguimos necesitando una fuente viable de energía renovable que puede ser utilizado por todo el mundo pronto, como el más largo que se tarda en encontrar esto, los recursos naturales más empobrecidos y agotados.

Sunday, February 5, 2012

Lithium air batteries

As an alternative to conventional vehicles, electric vehicles are one of the promises of the future. Because they cause less pollution and not dependent on fossil fuels, electric vehicles are a viable option for transport over the coming years. However, not everything is as simple as it seems.

In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted to be able to judge the popularity of the vehicles electrical. And while there are many people who would love to buy these Green cars also there are a lot of people who prefers the traditional gasoline vehicles.

Why? Well, the answer is quite simple: EVs have no conventional speed of vehicles , have less autonomy and there is also a lack of facilities for cargo. But perhaps the most important factor is the cost, even with the tax facilities in many countries is the purchase of an EV, many people cannot afford them.

To partly offset these problems, scientists have developed litio-aire batteries for electric vehicles. Thanks to the implementation of this technology be could, for example, provide a better range of autonomy for so electric vehicles can travel longer distances.

The litio-aire batteries used two electrolytes: a metal (lithium) and the other is oxygen. Now, generally each battery has an anode and a cathode. When chemical reactions take place, the electric current flows through the battery. In the litio-aire batteries, there is a cathode, oxygen. The batteries are operated to come into contact with the oxygen present in the atmosphere. That allows to be light in weight.

When they are commercially available and if all goes as planned, the batteries of litio-aire bring us closer to a future better and greener. Lithium air batteries have the ability to store a huge amount of energy: up to 5,000 watt-hours per kilogram.

This is even more than the hydrogen fuel cells. The batteries of litio-aire is estimated to have capacity of up to five to ten times more energy storage than a lithium-ion battery. Thus, with these batteries in the car, there will be need to recharge the vehicle each one few hours in case that you want to travel great distances.

The main difficulties of the lithium air batteries

The batteries of litio-aire have their share of disadvantages. Although some assume that once it succeeds in passing, they probably revolucionarán have an EV.

Firstly, the remains of the reactions accumulate in the cathode in the batteries of litio-aire. This makes the passage of air difficult.

Secondly, the automotive industry itself is so great, that a large amount of lithium would have to be used to provide a massive production EVs with battery litio-aire. This is a gigantic task. Thirdly, the manufacture of the litio-aire batteries cost a fortune, and it is still difficult to such spending and investment is seen as profitable commercial eyes business's most important automobiles of the world.

Saturday, February 4, 2012

How electricity: which is an electric field

In the 18th century, thanks to research of Coulomb, could be established that electric charges interact at distance, as well as the mass against gravitational forces. I.e., that a mass or load might inexplicably, without any mediator to notice another in their environments.

This idea was uncomfortable with physicists, even to the own Newton. Faraday proposed an alternative interpretation of very useful, based on the idea of field: space surrounding an electric charge is affected by its presence, since it modifies its characteristics.

In his attempt to represent him, Faraday described as invisible tentacles that are moving from the load. In this way, from the moment in which a body takes charge, this information or novelty is stretching in your environment quickly, indeed to the speed of light, and can eventually reach another load.

As it is true to speak of the interaction between a load and another, it is possible to also describe the same incident from the interaction of a cargo area that is.

To electric field can represent it with lines, by Convention, out of the positive charges and entering the negative charges. They indicate the direction of the field at every location, i.e. the direction of the electric force which would experience a timely and positive, load called burden of proof, if it is placed at each position in the field.

The number of lines is proportional to the intensity of the field, IE where the lines are very close, the field is large and where they are separated, the field is small.

Despite the many similarities between the actions electric and gravitational, should be clarified a difference: the gravitational field is always inlet to its source (a mass) while the electric field can be incoming or outgoing on the load that is generated, there are two different kinds of load.

View electric field requires some care, although it is possible to do it with some simple experiences. The simplest is to observe the direction of the hair covering the forearm when, for example,
We are approaching a bowed plastic rule.

Is also possible to obtain a representation at the level of the electric field linesor in the following manner: put a mixture of oil for the body and very small pieces of human hair, no more than 2 mm of
long, on a flat glass, such as a microscope slide. If we bring a charged object, observe that the orientation of the pieces of hair will follow the electric fieldlines.

Representation of electric fields created by positive and negative point charges.

Read more on electricity:

It is electricity

Learn how electricity

Conductive and insulating materials

Roads that generate electricity

Magnetic bacteria, which generate electricity

View the original article here