Monday, June 20, 2011

Canada’s Step Away From the Kyoto Protocol Can Be a Constructive Step Forward

Canada confirmed today (June 10, 2011) that it will not take on a target under an extension of the Kyoto Protocol following the completion of the first commitment period, 2008-2012. Given that Canada is likely to miss by a wide margin its current target under the first commitment period, this decision may not be surprising, but it is nevertheless important. More striking, it may actually turn out to be a positive and constructive step forward in the drive to address global climate change through meaningful international cooperation. Why do I say that?

The Current Situation

The Kyoto Protocol, which essentially expires at the end of 2012, divides the world into two competing economic camps. Emission reductions are required for only the small set of “Annex I countries” (essentially those nations that used to be thought of as comprising the industrialized world). Such reductions will not reduce global emissions, and whatever is achieved would be at excessive cost, because of having left so many countries and so many low-cost emissions-reduction opportunities off the table. Furthermore, that dichotomous distinction is by no means fair: more than 50 non-Annex I countries now have higher per capita incomes than the poorest of the Annex I countries. (I have written about this and other issues surrounding the Kyoto Protocol in the past: Defining Success for Climate Negotiations in Cancun; Defining Success for Climate Negotiations in Copenhagen; Three Pillars of a New Climate Pact).

The United States did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol, and has made it clear that it will not take on a target under a second commitment period. The U.S. position continues to be that a considerably broader agreement is necessary – one that includes commitments not only from the Annex I (industrialized) countries, but also from the key emerging economies, such as China, India, Brazil, Korea, Mexico, and South Africa.

For much the same reason, Russia and Japan announced last year that they would not take on post-2012 commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Further, it is unlikely that Australia will take on such a commitment under Kyoto, essentially leaving the European Union on its own.

On the other hand, the Kyoto Protocol is enthusiastically embraced by the non-Annex I countries (sometimes inaccurately characterized as the “developing countries”), because it holds out the promise of emissions reductions by the wealthiest nations without any responsibilities (costs) borne by others, including the emerging economies.

The Path from Copenhagen to Cancun to Durban

Year after year, the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has failed to reach agreement on a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. Most recently, in December, 2010, the issue was punted from the annual conference held in Cancun, Mexico, to the next conference, scheduled for December, 2011, in Durban, South Africa.

Because Durban provides the last opportunity to set up post-2012 targets (with time remaining for national ratification actions), it has been anticipated that the negotiations in Durban will re-ignite the divisiveness and recriminations that highlighted the Copenhagen negotiations in 2009 – with verbal hostilities between Annex I countries and non-Annex I countries dominating the discussions at the expense of any other considerations or meaningful actions.

A Positive and Constructive Step Forward

The decision just announced at meetings in Bonn, Germany, by the Canadian delegation that Canada will not take on a target in a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol can be a very constructive step forward. This is because it greatly reduces the risk that this year’s annual meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Durban will be dominated by acrimonious debates about a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol.

On the contrary, this announcement should encourage the non-Annex I (“developing”) countries, which have been insisting on a second commitment period, to begin to accept the reality that with the United States, Japan, Russia, and now Canada on record as not endorsing a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol, it is infeasible for the European Union to go it alone. (Indeed, one might suspect that Australia and most European nations are privately pleased by Canada’s announcement.)

The reality is that the world will be better off by focusing on sensible alternatives under the Long-Term Cooperative Action track of the UN negotiations and by “getting real” about post-Kyoto international climate policy architecture for the long term, such as by putting some additional meat on the Cancun Agreements and by considering any supplemental and sensible architectures the various parties wish to discuss. (For previous posts on the Cancun Agreements, see: Why Cancun Trumped Copenhagen; What Happened (and Why): An Assessment of the Cancun Agreements; Defining Success for Climate Negotiations in Cancun. For descriptions of a wide range of potential global climate policy architectures — ranging from top-down to bottom-up — see the diverse publications of the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements.)

Next Steps

At Cancun, it was encouraging to hear fewer people holding out for a commitment to another phase of the Kyoto Protocol, but it was politically impossible to spike the idea of extending the Kyoto agreement entirely. Instead, it was punted to the next gathering in Durban. Otherwise, the Cancun meeting could have collapsed amid acrimony and recriminations reminiscent of Copenhagen.

Usefully, the Cancun Agreements recognize directly and explicitly two key principles: (1) all countries must recognize their historic emissions (read, the industrialized world); and (2) all countries are responsible for their future emissions (think of those with fast-growing emerging economies). In important ways, this helps move beyond the old Kyoto divide.

The acceptance of the Cancun Agreements last December suggested that the international community may have begun to recognize that incremental steps in the right direction are better than acrimonious debates over unachievable targets. Canada’s announcement should help advance that recognition, and can thereby lead to vastly more productive talks this year in Durban.

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Sunday, June 19, 2011

Gas Helps (Not Hurts) Renewables And 7 Other Reasons Gas Can Be Green

Last week was a good one if you happen to own a natural gas well. Two reports on the outlook for natural gas, both in the U.S. and worldwide, gave a glowing assessment of the fuel’s future prospects. The International Energy Agency (IEA) cheekily titled its report, “Are We Entering a Golden Age of Gas?” The conclusion: global gas use will rise, in one scenario, by more than 50 percent by 2035. So, yes, it would seem the “golden age” is nigh. Meanwhile, the U.S.-centric report from the M.I.T. Energy Initiative, “The Future of Natural Gas” blasted critics who claimed that gas, when it comes from shale formations, is worse for the environment than coal.

Of course, your impression of these reports may differ if you’re a climate change activist rather than, say, a Chesapeake Energy shareholder.

The IEA report, for example, concluded that increasing use of gas puts greenhouse gas emissions on a trajectory to stabilize at 650 parts per million, which would bring a long-term temperature rise of 3.5 degrees Celsius. This figure, by any measure, is an unacceptably high level of warming and made Climate Progress blogger Joe Romm, very unhappy: “Absent a high CO2 price,” Romm wrote, “gas displaces as much low-carbon electricity as it does high-carbon coal.” But there are many reasons to think Romm and IEA are being overly pessimistic. While it’s clear that an elevated carbon price – for example, a carbon tax – would incentivize the adoption of renewable energy, gas could, in the near term, mean the end of coal as a major fuel source. It can encourage the adoption of renewables along a realistic timeline – one that allows green technology to catch up with green ambition. Here are some reasons why:

1. Natural gas enables renewable energy. Natural gas power plants can fire up quickly and adjust their power output rapidly. That makes them the ideal dance partner for wind and solar, which are variable energy sources. There may be a time in the next few decades when renewable resources don’t need fossil fuel backup, but we’re not there yet.

2. Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) mandate renewables. A growing number of states and countries are requiring a certain percentage of wind, solar and other non-fossil fuel on the electrical grid. In California, for example, that target is 33 percent renewable energy by 2020. In the European Union, the target is 33 percent by 2020. As long as legislators hold the line on those mandates, natural gas can’t crowd out renewables.

3. Integrated Solar Combined Cycle is crazy efficient. Modern natural gas plants working in combined cycle – a configuration that uses waste heat to drive a steam turbine – have efficiency ratings in the upper 50 percent/60 percent range. Introduce concentrated solar power (CSP) to the equation and efficiency can shoot up to 70 percent. How? CSP uses mirrors, or heliostats, to direct sunlight that boils liquid in a central tower. The steam then drives a turbine to create electricity. In this new configuration, the CSP can share the steam turbine and increase the efficiency of the system without burning any more fuel. General Electric, this magazine’s sponsor, has teamed up with CSP pioneer eSolar to introduce this technology.

4. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is advancing. CCS is often discussed in conjunction with coal but the technology, which involves storing carbon dioxide from power plants underground, has perhaps even more potential for natural gas

This technology actually works – it’s been tested and proven at multiple sites – but is still too expensive to deploy at scale. While some in the environmental community think utility-scale CCS is a Macguffin, others believe it has enormous potential for decarbonizing energy if costs can be brought down.

5. Methane emissions from natural gas can be curbed. Recent attacks on natural gas have focused on leaks of methane, the principal component of gas and a potent greenhouse gas, during its lifecycle – the drilling, transportation and end use. While the most dire scenario of lifecycle emissions has been discredited by some researchers, methane emissions remain a problem. But it’s possible to recapture the leaking methane and there is an incentive for industry to do it, since this is fuel that can be sold.

6. Gas plants can, and likely will, knock out old coal plants. This is a point made in the IEA report but it’s worth stressing. In the U.S., tightening emissions regulations will make coal plants expensive to retrofit and natural gas plants, which emit about half the carbon dioxide, will likely pick up the slack. The emissions savings in the United States could be 150 million tons of carbon per year if 66 gigawatts of coal plants are replaced, according to one estimate. Just Thursday, one utility, American Electric Power of Ohio, announced plans to shut down five coal-fired plants by 2014 to comply with the new guidelines.

7. There is a lot of idle natural gas capacity on the grid. Those power plants are of a relatively recent vintage – most were built in the 1990s – so they’re efficient. This means that the emissions savings from natural gas are already built into the system, they just need to be activated. M.I.T. researchers believe total carbon emissions in the U.S. could decrease by 8 percent if natural gas plants are utilized at a higher level.

8. China has a lot of natural gas, which is a good thing. For all the talk about China’s renewable power ambitions, right now coal is the superpower’s fuel of the future: gas is expected to represent 63 percent of primary energy consumption by 2015. Continued dependence on coal will have disastrous consequences both for carbon emissions and for pollution in China’s already smoggy megacities. Tapping China’s vast gas resources could help make cities cleaner and electricity generation less carbon intensive.

Article appearing courtesy Txchnologist.

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Saturday, June 18, 2011

Pepsi’s New Green PET Bottle

Pepsi Green PET Bottle

PepsiCo is one of the leading food and beverage businesses in the world. Since 2010, it has been focusing on protecting the earth’s natural energy resources with competent use of soil, water, power and finding and focusing on innovative ways to do so. Recently PepsiCo developed the world’s first plastic bottle made entirely from renewable and plant-sourced raw materials. This, in contrast to the traditional PET bottle leaves less carbon trace on our planet.

A trend-setter and leader in green sustainability
The latest in PepsiCo’s green efforts is the ‘green’ bottle – manufactured from raw materials which are bio-based like: corn husks, switch grass and pine-barks. Soon bi-products from its own food business, like potato peels, orange peels and oat hulls will be utilized for producing the green bottle. This bottle is entirely plant based, from fully renewable resources and is 100% recyclable. This is identical in looks, feel and function as the petroleum-based PET bottle. After completion of a pilot production in 2012, commercial production will be commenced.

‘Performance with Purpose’
Sourcing raw materials for the green bottle from their own food unit to utilize for their other unit – the beverage unit has made PepsiCo realize their goal of ‘Performance with Purpose’ with a sustainable business model. This is a great example of ‘Power of One’ – matching strategic and innovative internal products against needs. This has won acclaim from As You Sow – a San Francisco-based foundation. It applauded PepsiCo’s corporate social responsibility for reducing carbon footprint and fossil-fuel dependency.

Goals & commitments
Some examples of the billion dollar giant’s environmental concern and green ethics are:

Fully compostable bag at Sunchips and using solar power for manufacturing them.Introducing lightweight Ecofina bottles, and reNEWabottles in US.Achieving ‘Positive Water Balance’ in India 2009.Introducing the ‘Dream Machine’ for on-the-go recycling in US.

Marching towards the goal
Ms. Indra Nooyi, CEO & PepsiCo Chairperson says, “This breakthrough innovation is a transformational development for PepsiCo and the beverage industry, and a direct result of our commitment to research and development…. a sustainable business model that we believe brings to life the essence of Performance with Purpose.” PepsiCo indeed has shown exemplary and “unique commitment to sustainable growth by investing in a healthier future for people and our planet.”

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Friday, June 17, 2011

Increasing the Efficiency of Wind Turbine Blades

Wind Turbine Blades

To ensure wind turbines that are big in size work in a better manner, a new kind of air-flow technology may soon be introduced. Apart from other aspects, it will focus on efficiency of blades used in the wind turbines. The technology will help in increasing the efficiency of these turbines under various wind conditions. This is a significant development in the area of renewable energy after new wind-turbine power generation capacity got added to new coal-fired power generation in 2008.

Testing new systems to optimize the efficiency of wind turbines and their blades
Syracuse University researchers Guannan Wang, Basman El Hadidi, Jakub Walczak, Mark Glauser and Hiroshi Higuchi are testing new intelligent-system based active control methods with the support from the U S Department of Energy through the University of Minnesota Wind Energy Consortium. They record data in an intelligent controller after getting a rough idea of the flow conditions over the blade surfaces from surface measurement. This helps them implement real-time actuation on the blades. In this way, not only the efficiency of wind turbine system is increased but the airflow can also be managed.

Advantages of new systems to optimize the efficiency of wind turbines and their blades

They reduce noise.They reduce vibration.

New developments that are being worked out to make wind turbines and blades more efficient

The overall working scope of the wind turbine can be enlarged by using the flow control on the outboard side of the blade beyond the half radius. Attempts are being made to increase the rated output power without increasing the level of operating range.An anechoic chamber is being set-up to measure and define the effects of flow control on the noise spectrum of the wind turbine.To know the airfoil lift and drag characteristics with suitable flow control while exposed to large-scale flow unsteadiness, efforts are being made to characterize airfoil in an anechoic wind tunnel facility at Syracuse University.Scientists are also trying to attain a greater efficiency by placing blades at various angles through wind tunnel tests of 2.5 megawatt turbine airfoil surfaces and computer simulations.

Drawbacks of wind energy turbines and their blades
The blades face a lot of challenge while beating the air. Scientists at the University of Minnesota are looking forward to erect this process called drag by placing these small grooves or triangular riblets scored into a coating on the surface of the turbine blade. The small groves of the size between 40 to 225 microns make the blade look smooth. When used in an aero plane, the riblets were very successful. With their basic structure being the same as the wings of the plane, they were able to reduce the drag by 6 percent in aircrafts. But since the turbine blades have a thick cross section close to the hub and there is a lot of chaos at the ground, this technology failed in wind turbines.

Anything working on wind energy including wind turbines needs a steady wind flow to function properly. The wind turbine blades, when confronted with extreme conditions, wear out very fast.

The design of wind turbines is not considered appropriate, despite the fact that the cost of making power through them has reduced.

Though wind energy turbines, their blades and the riblets may have some drawbacks, they can still be considered as a very efficient and reliable source of energy. Keeping this in mind, a meeting has been arranged in Long Beach, CA by American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics to assess the ways to enable the best use of wind turbines. Also, a project to use riblets to increase wind turbine efficiency by 3 percent is being worked upon by Roger Arndt, Leonardo P. Chamorro and Fotis Sotiropoulos from University of Minnesota.

What do you think?

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Thursday, June 16, 2011

Laser ‘Scribing’ to Increase Solar Cell Efficiency

Laser Scribing

Over the years, thanks to the devoted research work going on for increasing the efficiency of solar cells, today solar cells are no longer flat shaped or unyielding. Ultra thin film-type solar cells have now been manufactured which are quite flexible and adaptable for use in corners, curvilinear and other structures. Today almost 20% of global solar power generation is done by these thin-film solar cells and expected to grow more in near future.

Increasing the efficiency of thin-film solar cells
The films when assembled into an array are only as efficient as the ‘microchannels’ on the films which help convert the sunlight to electrons needed for power generation. Until now the ’scribing’ of the microchannels have been done with the help of a mechanical stylus which is an expensive process. Also the channels so produced are not perfect with exact grooves or uniform depth. Now the new research has developed a way to do channel scribing with the help of lasers.

Laser scribing made easy
The research team focused on ways to improve the scribing of the microchannels. Better the microchannels, more efficient will be the solar cells. They tried a process called ‘cold ablation’ to use laser beams flashed for only picoseconds – quadrillionths of a second. This way, pulsing laser helped in making microchannels with exact depths and well-defined outlines without causing any damage to the ultra-thin-film solar cells and too in a very fast manner.

Superiority of the ‘ultrashort pulse laser’
The idea of using lasers for scribing the microchannels on the thin-film solar cells has been tried earlier also. But controlling the lasers to scribe exactly to the correct depth and outline was quite a difficult task. But now with the cold ablation technique and using an ‘ultrashort pulse laser’, the team found success in creating perfect microchannels. With this technique, the team was able to control the laser even at 10-20 nanometer depth.

Success of the team
The team is hoping to improve the efficiency of the thin-film solar cells and also reduce the cost factor. ‘Ultra-short pulse laser, ultrafast laser scribing’ & ‘cold ablation technique’ will improve the efficiency of the cells, and commercial production will be hugely benefited with this. As Professor Yung Shin puts it, “The efficiency of solar cells depends largely on how accurate your scribing of microchannels is… If they are made as accurately as possibly, efficiency goes up.”

The research team
The research team consists of Yung Shin, Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Director of Purdue University’s Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing, and Gary Cheng, Associate Professor of Industrial Engineering and Martin Yi Zhang, Seunghyun Lee and Wenqian Hu – graduate students. They published a paper in Proceedings of the 2011 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference this January. The research has been funded by National Science Foundation with a $425,000 grant for three years.

What do you think?

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Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Generating Electricity from Wing Waves

Wing Waves

Just like wind mills and wind turbines that generate power and electricity from the wind, scientists are now working to generate power from the sea. Stephen Wood, an assistant professor of marine and environmental systems at Florida Institute of Technology’s College of Engineering is working on this technology for its advance and proper use. This technology will use Wing waves in a very efficient way to generate electricity and power from the sea.

The wing waves technology to produce electricity and power from sea is a project initiated by a renewable energy firm from Tallahassee called the Clean and Green Enterprises. This firm has been working in this area since the past five years.

The use of Wing Waves to produce electricity from the sea
According Wood, about 200,000 houses can be lit with the help of one square miles of wings that produce around 1000 units of electric power. Power is generated by changing elliptical motion wave into mechanical energy after trapping it 30 feet to 60 feet below the sea.

The chief executive with Clean and Green Enterprises Inc., Terence Bolden says that the wings sway 30 degrees from side to side. They take 8 to 10 seconds to complete every arc. In this process, they produce electricity.

Basic requirements to use Wing Waves to produce electricity from the sea
To use Wing waves to produce electricity from the sea, there are two basic requirements: depth of 40 to 50 feet and a sandy bottom. Sea fans are placed on the sandy base. Though, bigger wings can be used to tap water to make electricity but for that the plant to make these wings has to be situated near the ocean. Till then, the fans having trapezoid-shaped wings that are 8 feet tall and 15 feet wide will continue to be used and they will be transported through road. The height and the width of the wings are carefully made so that they can be transported by the road and can be easily placed under the sea.

Advantages of using Wing Waves to produce electricity from the sea
An example of Wind Waves to produce electric power from the sea was showcased when two 8-foot-tall wing flaps moved up and down on the seabed, just a few miles away from the Fort Pierce Fla.

The advantages of Wing waves are:

It is a clean and green way to generate electric power.It is an alternative way to provide power.It protects sea life. Wings waves are very environment friendly as they do not cause any danger to the turtles and attract fish.The power produced in the sea can be used on land by transferring the electricity from sea to land through cables.The wing waves are a treat for the eye to see.If these wings are properly maintained, they can be used up to 20 years.The wings will operate and generate power even when the sea is a bit calm. The wings will get locked automatically during hurricanes, when the sea is rough.Wing wave’s technology can operate in any coastal area.Wing Waves also help in desalinizing sea water.

The prototype of Wing Waves technology
The prototype of wing waves that has been working from November 17 off the Florida coast is built with aluminum. It has helped to collect data on wave motion and other relevant matters. The prototype that is going to replace the one used now will be made from composite material that is more resistant to corrosion.

Hopefully, Wing waves will be a revolution in generating power and electricity from the sea.

What do you think?

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Tuesday, June 14, 2011

MiraQua: A Tiny Miracle

MiraQua Electric Car

Today there seems to be more and more and yet more vehicles on the road than ever. Everybody wants to have their own transport and a smaller car with least carbon emission seems to be an ideal solution for this inexhaustible number of cars that seem to be coming up.

Tiny cars electrically driven but looking unique in design and performance may be the ideal solution, according to Chaoyi Li, designer of the MiraQua car. Though he designed this as a solution for Australia and China’s excessive traffic congestion, this car can become popular all over.

Meticulous design
MiraQua designer, Chaoyi Li, has done a thorough job of designing this unique-designed small green concept car tailor-made for improving urban life quality. He had carried out through sketching, body storming practices, mock-up modeling in various media include styling foam, crafting clay and metal wire etc., and digital model making in Autodesk Studiotools. The name also refers to the smooth flow of the vehicle-traffic like that of a water stream.

MiraQua is a very chic and compact-looking electrical vehicle looking quite different from a traditional car. This has an in-wheel-motor and drive-by-wire-technologies. This has a differently designed front wing that kind of rises up and acts as entrance from the front. A foldable front seat allows access to rear seats. The design looks minimalistic from outside but spacious from the inside with an 1.9 x 0.6 meters inside floor area.

With one half of the front portion of the car opening up entirely, and the front passenger side seat being foldable, it is easy to access the rear seats via the front entrance. And it is easy to lug in bigger size packages as well. The entire passenger side leg area is available for stowing things. It looks chic, functional and small and with this, it is very easy to zip through the traffics that a bigger car may find it impossible to do.

Zero Carbon Emissions
With MiraQua being a totally electrical car, there are no carbon emissions. The very driving force behind the development of this car was the desire of its designer to reduce fossil fuel dependency and using optimally minimal road space for commuting and parking. This he has achieved with the creation of MiraQua.

It is heartening to see more and more efforts focused to contain the carbon print on our universe and reduce fossil fuel dependency. When individual transportation becoming a way of life, it is good to have a small car that will not hog road space. It is all the more better in having a green sensitive vehicle that will be eco-friendly and leave no carbon footprint.

What do you think?

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Monday, June 13, 2011

Hydrogen Generation and Storage Made Easy with Nano-Technology

Hydrogen Nano-Technology

Fuels like gasoline, based on hydrocarbon, create pollution and carbon footprint. Hydrogen has been claimed to be a good alternative to replace fossil fuel since the 1970s. But hydrogen’s potential has not been realized even partially mainly because of storage and commercial production difficulties. There have been research being done on renewable energy sources like hydrogen for quite some years. Recently, breakthrough research has been successful in creating a new method for storing hydrogen.

Difficulties faced in usage of hydrogen
Hydrogen is a cleaner renewable energy source if only the two problems of safe storage and easy access are overcome. The traditional way of fastening hydrogen into solids has not been very successful. Too less volume of hydrogen was absorbed while storing and too convoluted methods like too high heating or cooling was needed for releasing it which did not make it commercially viable.

New way of storing hydrogen
A team of scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), Department of Energy (DOE), US have discovered a new material called air-stable magnesium nano-composites which can help in storing hydrogen without complex methodology. This composite material consists of ‘nano-particles of magnesium metal sprinkled through a matrix of polymethyl methacrylate – a polymer related to Plexiglas.’

Advantages of new material
This nano-composite is a pliable material and it is capable of absorbing and releasing hydrogen at an ordinary temperature without oxidizing the metal. This capacity has been touted as the major step towards a better design for hydrogen storage, hydrogen batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. The scientists have been able to design for the first time successfully composite materials that are nano-scale and which are capable of overcoming the barriers that are thermodynamic and kinetic in nature.

Observing the new material scientifically
The team observed the material and its behavior via TEAM 0.5 microscope at National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM). They tracked the behavior of hydrogen in the new storage material. They further studied the performance of hydrogen in the nano-composite material at Energy and Environmental Technologies Division (EETD), at the Berkeley Lab. EETD has been pioneering research about technologies about renewable energies, their generation and storage etc including hydrogen.

Role of DOE – Nano-scale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)
The NSRCs are a group of five facilities with state-of-art wherewithal to research in depth about nano-scale materials. The National Nanotechnology Initiative from DOE has resulted in huge investments for developing the infrastructure of these facilities. The team has put together and manufactured this new material at Materials Sciences Division. In words of team member Urban, “The successes we achieve depend critically upon close ties between cutting-edge microscopy at NCEM, tools and expertise from EETD, and the characterization and materials know-how from MSD.”

The team
Jeff Urban, Deputy Director, Inorganic Nanostructures Facility, Molecular Foundry, Office of Nano-Science Center DOE, Berkeley Lab, Christian Kisielowski and Ki-Joon Jeon were the co-authors and Hoi Ri Moon, Anne M. Ruminski, Bin Jiang and Rizia Bardhan were the rest of the team. DOE’s Office of Science supported the research work.

What do you think?

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