Thursday, March 1, 2012

Nuclear cemetery

As in any process of obtaining energy, it is necessary to use materials that provide a physical and chemical reaction whose energy is then captured by various technologies to generate electricity, and in the case of the Nuclear reactors, generates a large amount of waste that are obviously harmful if that does not properly kept.

Those considered as radioactive waste are usually a group of radioisotopes, elements whose main characteristic is to emit ionizing radiation, that can naturally cause damage to human health and the environment, taking different types and levels of radiation which vary in the periods:

Low activity waste:They are generated by hospitals and industry in general, including also the processing of Nuclear fuel, containing small amounts of radiation of short duration (with a period of 30 years semi-desintegración)Middle activity waste: even though its name suggests not, these wastes contain higher amounts of radioactivity, in some cases requiring a Special protection for storageincluded in this group to the mud, resins and chemicals used in the Nuclear Reactor, so much so as contaminated materials from decommissioning. While having a same period of semi-desintegración of low activity, required to be solidified in concrete or tarWaste of high activity: are those from the operation of the Nuclear reactors, containing by-products of Nuclear fission and the Transuranium elements that are generated at the core of it, being highly radioactive and even possessing high temperature directly.

These residues are derived from 95% of the total radioactivity produced in the process of Nuclear electricity
, widely exceeding 30 years for his semi-desintegración.
Among these, stands out the plutonium 240, with 6,600 years; and neptunium 237, with a half-life of 2.130.000 years

As they must assume, each group of nuclear waste will require storage identified for disposal, so tend to locate in the colloquially known as Nuclear cemeteries, which include sites which are carefully kept these materials, previously conditioned according to the type of waste.

Warehouses of low activity: are located on the surface or very shallow, being mainly chosen the Minas Abandonadas, with various barriers and using geologically stable and impervious areas, with all possible security measures.Temporary warehouse: waste of High activity, being used for treatment or recycling of the same, or to achieve their correct isolation, prior to disposal, but they also tend to host materials for less than 100 years.Geological storage: also known as Deep geological storage (AGP) is used to store waste of high activity and deadlines over a thousand years, although they are still in development because of its complexity.Storage submarine: instead of storing beneath the Earth, in this case exploits the Ocean floor, more precisely in the oceanic trenches, where discharges of these materials are carried out from the year 1950.

Residuos Nucleares

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